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Homelessness and Traumatic Brain Injuries

The intersection of homelessness and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) represents a critical, yet often overlooked, area. Understanding how these two challenges intersect is essential for developing effective support systems and interventions. We want to shed light on the complex relationship between TBIs and homelessness, exploring causes, consequences, and potential solutions.


What are Traumatic Brain Injuries?


A traumatic brain injury occurs when an external force, such as a blow or jolt to the head, disrupts normal brain function. TBIs can range from mild (concussions) to severe (extended periods of unconsciousness or amnesia). Symptoms vary widely, including cognitive deficits, emotional disturbances, physical impairments, and behavioral changes. These symptoms can persist long-term, significantly affecting a person's quality of life. According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), 1.4 million Americans per year sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting in 235,000 hospitalizations.


TBI is a major cause of death and disability


According to the CDC, there were over 69,000 TBI-related deaths in the United States in 2021. That's about 190 TBI-related deaths every day.

TBIs affect the lives of people of all ages. Anyone can experience a TBI, but data suggest that some groups are at greater risk of dying from a TBI or experiencing long-term health problems after the injury. Examples of groups who are more likely to be affected by TBI, include:

  • Racial and ethnic minorities

  • Service members and veterans

  • People who experience homelessness

  • People who are in correctional and detention facilities

  • Survivors of intimate partner violence

  • People living in rural areas

Learn more about health disparities and TBI.


The Connection Between TBIs and Homelessness


Prevalence of TBIs Among the Homeless Population


Research indicates that TBIs are disproportionately prevalent among individuals experiencing homelessness. Studies have shown that between 40% and 60% of homeless people have suffered at least one TBI, with many experiencing multiple injuries. The reasons for this high prevalence are multifaceted:


  1. Increased Risk Factors: People experiencing homelessness are more likely to encounter situations that increase the risk of TBIs, such as physical assaults, accidents, and falls.

  2. Pre-existing Conditions: TBIs can be both a cause and a consequence of homelessness. Some individuals may become homeless due to cognitive impairments from a TBI, leading to job loss and an inability to manage daily responsibilities. Conversely, the harsh conditions of homelessness can lead to new injuries.


Impact of TBIs on Homelessness


The effects of TBIs can create significant barriers to escaping homelessness:


  1. Cognitive Impairments: Individuals with TBIs often struggle with memory, attention, and problem-solving skills, making it difficult to navigate complex systems like social services, healthcare, and employment.

  2. Behavioral and Emotional Challenges: TBIs can lead to mood swings, irritability, and difficulty managing emotions, which can strain relationships and lead to social isolation.

  3. Physical Disabilities: Physical impairments resulting from TBIs can limit mobility and the ability to perform daily tasks, increasing dependency on others for care and support.

  4. Substance Abuse: There is a high co-occurrence of substance abuse among individuals with TBIs, as some may use drugs or alcohol to cope with their symptoms. This can exacerbate health problems and complicate efforts to secure stable housing and employment.


Stable Housing Solutions


Securing stable housing is a critical step in breaking the cycle of homelessness and TBIs. Housing-first approaches, which prioritize providing permanent housing without preconditions, can offer the stability needed for individuals to access healthcare and support services. At Wings, we aim to help our clients stabilize in their new housing with access to the supplies they need to stay housed. Together, we can make a difference in the lives of those who need it most!

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